ME Research A History Pt. II – Definitions, Books, Related Research, etc

 See ME Research – A History Pt I for research citations

  • Historical ME definitions and descriptions
  • Books relating to ‘ME’
  • Related Research Literature
  • Related ‘CFS’ Research Literature
  • ‘CFS’ Definitions
  • Other related information
  • Related Phoenix Rising forum discussions
  • Other Resources
  • How to find an article using a DOI reference

Royal Free controversy: McEvedy and Beard
> McEvedy and Beard papers
> Correspondence in response to McEvedy and Beard

Historical ME Definitions and Descriptions (listed in order of date)

(This section is a work in progress and is incomplete – please see section 1 for more information)

Epidemic Neuromyasthenia — Clinical Syndrome? 
Donald A. Henderson, M.D.†, and Alexis Shelokov, M.D.
N Engl J Med 1959; 260:757-764April 9, 1959
The New England Journal of Medicine…95904092601506 (need to sign in)

Epidemic neuromyasthenia the sporadic form
George W Holt 1965
American Journal of the Medical Sciences: January 1965 – Volume 219 – Issue 1 – ppg 98-112…c_Form.16.aspx

Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis
Br Med J. 1978 June 3; 1(6125): 1436–1437
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 3 JUNE 1978…604957/?page=1…0128-0006b.pdf

MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS: A Baffling Syndrome With a Tragic Aftermath
A. Melvin Ramsay M.D., Hon Consultant Physician,
Infectious Diseases Dept., Royal Free Hospital
(Pub. 1986)…say.html#BAFFL

The Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Syndrome
A. Melvin Ramsay M.A. M.D. 1986(?)…msay.html#mono

Myalgic encephalomyelitis a persistent enteroviral infection?
E.G. Dowsettl, A.M. Ramsay, R.A. McCartney and E.J. Bell 1990…00163-0031.pdf

The Epidemiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) in the UK – 1919-1999
EG Dowsett J Richardson 1999
(Evidence submitted to the All Party Parliamentary Group of Members of Parliament, EG Dowsett J Richardson. 23 Nov 1999)…ogy_of_me.html

THE LATE EFFECTS OF ME – Can they be distinguished from the Post-polio syndrome?
Dr. E.G. Dowsett MBChB, Dip Bact. Honorary Consultant Microbiologist, Basildon and Thurrock Hospitals NHS Trust.
(Originally a Presentation to the All Party Group of MPs on ME/PPS on 31st January 2001.)…effectsme.html

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Guidelines for Doctors – REVIEW
John Richardson, MB BS
Journal: J of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 10(1) 2002, pp. 65-80…Guidelines.pdf

Nightingale Definition of ME [unpublished]
Byron Hyde 2007…inition_en.pdf


Books relating to ‘ME’

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Postviral Fatigue States: The saga of Royal Free disease [Book]
A. Melvin Ramsay 1986 (1st edition)…/dp/0906923999…/dp/0906923999

Enteroviral and Toxin Mediated Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Organ Pathologies [Book]
John Richardson, Roberto Patarca Montero…mm_pap_title_0

The Clinical and Scientific Basis of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis–Chronic Fatigue Syndrome [Book]
Byron M. Hyde (Author, Editor), Jay A. Goldstein (Author, Editor), P. H. Levine (Editor), Nightingale Research Foundation (Corporate Author)…f=cm_lmf_tit_1

Missed Diagnoses Myalgic Encephalomyelitis & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Second Edition [Book]
Byron Hyde MD…f=cm_lmf_tit_2

Osler’s Web: Inside the Labyrinth of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Epidemic [Book]
Hillary Johnson…p/051770353X#_…=SKU-000027141

Faces of CFS – Case Histories of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome [Book]
David S. Bell, MD, FAAP, Lyndonville, New York, August 15, 2000


Related Research Literature

A chronic illness characterized by fatigue, neurologic and immunologic disorders, and active human herpesvirus type 6 infection
Buchwald D, Cheney PR, Peterson DL, Henry B, Wormsley SB, Geiger A, Ablashi DV, Salahuddin SZ, Saxinger C, Biddle R, et al.
1992 Jan 15

Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with chronic enterovirus infection of the stomach
John K S Chia, Andrew Y Chia 2007…of-stomach.pdf

The Newcastle NHS Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Service: not all fatigue is the same
JL Newton, H Mabillard, A Scott, A Hoad, G Spickett…0_4/newton.pdf

Enteroviral myalgic encephalomyelitis — EvME [ME/CFS]
A treatise on EvME by Dr Irving Spurr who argues that “The enteroviruses, ubiquitous in nature, are responsible for a variety of human diseases ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fulminating multi-organ failure. They are the cause of myalgic encephalomyelitis, and it is no surprise that this disease has multi-organ involvement with protean manifestation.”…ypubs/EvME.pdf
Source Website:…/articles.html

Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome
Elaine Defreitas, Brendan Hilliard, Paul R. Cheney, David S. Bell, Edward Kiggundu, Diane Sankey, Zofia Wroblewska, Maria Palladino, John P. Woodward, And Hilary Koprowski
November 13, 1990
Medical Sciences April 1991…01057-0319.pdf


Related ‘CFS’ Research Literature

Long Term Sickness Absence due to ME/CFS in UK Schools: An Epidemiological Study With Medical and Educational Implications
Elizabeth G Dowsett Consultant Microbiologist, Jane Colby Former Headteacher Executive Director, Tymes Trust 1997

A cluster of patients with a chronic mononucleosis-like syndrome. Is Epstein-Barr virus the cause?
Holmes GP, Kaplan JE, Stewart JA, Hunt B, Pinsky PF, Schonberger LB 1987

History of postviral fatigue syndrome
S Wessely 1991
King’s College Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK


‘CFS’ Definitions (listed in order of date)

CDC Holmes Definition 1988
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Working Case Definition
GARY P. HOLMES et al.…Definition.pdf

Oxford Criteria 1990
A report – chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research
Report of a consensus meeting held at Green College, Oxford
M C Sharpe et al.
23 March 1990
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 84 February 1991 118-121…ria%201991.pdf

CDC Fukuda criteria 1994
Complete Text of 1994 Case Definition of CFS
Fukudama et al.
Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 121, December 15, 1994…/complete.html

Canadian Consensus Criteria 2003
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition, Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols
Carruthers et al. 2003

An Overview of the Canadian Consensus Document
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Clinical Case Definition and Guidelines for Medical Practitioners
Bruce M. Carruthers, Marjorie I. van de Sande

CDC Empirical Definition 2005
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A clinically empirical approach to its definition and study
William C Reeves, Dieter Wagner, Rosane Nisenbaum, James F Jones, Brian Gurbaxani, Laura Solomon, Dimitris A Papanicolaou, Elizabeth R Unger, Suzanne D Vernon, and Christine Heim.


Other related information

Karen Richards

A Disease in Search of a Name: the History of CFS and Efforts to Change its Name

John Chia – Enteroviruses – Interview with John Chia

E.P. Marshall, M. Williams, M. Hooper 2001…20is%20CFS.htm

Misdiagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome…me/misdiag.htm…1-154-170.html…0Diagnosis.pdf

Enterovirus – Wikipedia entry

(Article from a leaflet, which was produced by the M.E. Association around late 1980s early 1990s)
A.Melvin Ramsay M.A. M.D.…20OF%20ME.html

WHO ICD-10 (ME)…?gg90.htm+g933

Who benefits from ‘CFS’ and ‘ME/CFS’?
Jodi Bassett 2009

Reminiscences of the chronic fatigue syndrome [Article]
Peter Snow has been a rural general practitioner in Tapanui for many years. He was the first New Zealand medical practitioner to describe an outbreak of an illness characterised by chronic fatigue in West Otago in 1984.…ecember-02.pdf

The CDC ‘overview of CFS’

The WHO ICD in relation to M.E. and ‘CFS’ (Hummingbird website)


Related Phoenix Rising forum discussions

Is it worth explaining the difference between ME and CFS to the public??…litis+Syndrome

Diagnostic Criteria – can we resolve our community’s differences?…-s-differences

ICD-11 Alpha Draft scheduled to launch in May…-launch-in-May

the psych lobby strikes again: DSM-5 v. WHO’s ICD in the US…-ICD-in-the-US

ME and cfs to be classified as seperate illnesses…rate-illnesses

Dr Jason’s CAA webinar on CFS diagnostic criteria now on YouTube…now-on-YouTube


Other Resources:

List of 63 epidemic outbreaks of ME:…M.E._Epidemics

Reference index of papers published on epidemics of ME 1934-80 (collected by Dr J. Gordon Parish)
(Articles from Dr J. Gordon Parish’s comprehensive index have not been systematically added to this wiki page – Readers should also refer to Parish’s list, if appropriate to their needs.)…s1934-1980.pdf

Nightingale Research Foundation – website

The Hummingbird’s Foundation for ME – website

Helpful list of historical ME research papers:…ERS_ON_CFS.htm

Action for ME recent CFS/ME research archive:…/research-news

ME/CFS Timeline


How to find an article using a DOI reference

Enter the DOI reference here:



Royal Free controversy: McEvedy and Beard

In 1970 two psychiatrists, McEvedy and Beard, attempted to put the 1955 epidemic down to mass hysteria. Yet, at that time the UK had several true ME clinicians and advocates who all wrote scathing letters to the BMJ in response to McEvedy and Beards’ claims.

McEvedy and Beard papers:

Royal Free Epidemic of 1955: A Reconsideration
Colin P. McEvedy and A. W. Beard
3rd January 1970
Br Med J. 1970 January 3; 1(5687): 7–11.

Concept of Benign Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
Colin P. McEvedy and A. W. Beard
3rd January 1970
Br Med J. 1970 January 3; 1(5687): 11–15.

Correspondence in response to McEvedy and Beard:

Scott BD (January 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5689): 170. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.111.170. PMC 1699088.…forumid=331851

N. D. Compston, H. E. Dimsdale, A. M. Ramsay, A. T. Richardson (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5692): 362–363. PMC 1699022.…forumid=331851

E. D. Acheson (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5692): 363–4. PMC 1698971.…forumid=331851

Gosling PH (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5694): 499–500. PMC 1699452.…forumid=331851

Burke GJ (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5694): 500. PMC 1699458.…forumid=331851

Hopkins EJ (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5694): 500–1. PMC 1699426.…forumid=331851

Galpine JF (February 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 1 (5694): 501. PMC 1699416.…forumid=331851

Poskanzer DC (May 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 2 (5706): 420–1. PMC 1700311.…forumid=331851

Parish JG (July 1970). “Epidemic malaise”. Br Med J 3 (5713): 47–8. PMC 1700986.…forumid=331851


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