Twisted History: Ampligen and CFS

A Twisted History  - Twenty years ago advocates were lobbying for ‘fast-track’ status for the new wonder drug they hoped would cure the disease. Ampligen never had a chance of being fast-tracked given the patient population wasn’t dying in large numbers but no one ever thought 20 plus years later the fate of the drug would still be unclear. Ampligen’s manufacturer, Hemispherx Biopharma, has been seeking FDA approval on and off since 1988 but the only patients currently able to use the drug are patients in the drug trials or very ill patients who have been able to use it on a ‘cost-recovery basis’. Ampligen has been available for use in both Belgium and Canada (under its emergency drug release program) since 1996.

With Friends Like This…  Hemispherx Biopharma, the small company that produces the drug, and it’s founder, Dr. William Carter, have Ampligen (poly I:poly C12U)  have been embroiled in lawsuits throughout much of its existence. Throughout his career Dr. Carter has been a lightning rod for controversy with dismissals, accusations and lawsuits dotting his time with different companies.

Some of the allegations have been remarkable; one sick chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patient sued Carter claiming he required him to buy $1,000,000 in Hemispherx stock to order to participate in a study. (He later dropped the lawsuit). Dr. Carter has twice sued former employers (once successfully) to get his job back. Patients in the chronic fatigue syndrome drug trials successfully sued after Hemispherx denied them the drug after the trial ended. (For a hilarious and often heartrending ‘fictional’ account of the early Ampligen trials read Patient 002 by Floyd Skloot.)

With a 30 million dollar infusion from DuPont, Dr. Carter and Hemispherx began clinical trials in Ampligen in chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in 1988. Trouble ensued and in 1990 Dupont settled (what else) a lawsuit with Hemispherx and gave up all claims to the drug. Possibly hemorrhaging money after a major financier died, Hemispherx cut back a 48 week trial to 24 weeks and, according to one report, applied for fast-track limited drug approval at the FDA. As the media spread accounts of a wonder drug that significantly helped many patients, the FDA, citing toxicity concerns and calling the data before them ‘incomplete and inadequate’ (and not happy at all about the media attention) nixed the fast track status and told Hemispherx to stop making unproven claims. Hemispherx then turned its attention away from getting approval for the drug in the U.S. It would be almost 20 years before Ampligen would finally near the end of the treatment trial road at the FDA.

Despite producing a drug that has substantially helped some chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients, Hemispherx has gathered few friends in the past 20 years. In the early 1990s Kim Kenney (McCleary), now the President of the CFIDS Association of America , said “Ampligen is a good drug in the wrong hands”. Daniel Hoth, then head of the National Institutes of Health’s AIDS drug program, went further when he told the Wall Street journal that “no professional drug company with any degree of professionalism would ever develop Ampligen the way it was developed by HEM.”

Indeed the drug trial has been going on for so long that Hemispherx is reportedly tied to an obsolete definition for the disease (Holmes) and an out of date statistical package. Advocates and physicians have questioned what kinds of patients are in the studies, the markers Hemispherx is using to chart the patients’ progress, and the overall competence of the company.

Whatever mistakes have been made, Hemispherx has its advocates as well. Ampligen is still the only drug that has undergone clinical trials for this controversial disease. While many fervently wish a different company had taken over the drug years ago, others applaud Dr. Carter’s tenacity for sticking with it through thick and thin for over 30 years. That the drug is still alive and may, in fact, be on the edge of approval, may be something of a miracle given its history, the disease it treats, and the high failure rate of drugs in general.

Recently Hemispherx appears to have gotten its financing and legal house in order. In 2009 Carter reported that all legal issues had been settled leaving the company free to focus on the drug itself. Ampligen has completed Phase II and III clinical trials. After having missed the deadlines in 2005 and earlier in 2007, Hemispherx filed its ‘New Drug Application’ (NDA) with the FDA in October, 2007. The FDA bounced back the application with questions in early 2008. Hemispherx replied and after both the drug and the company went under further reviews the FDA passed the drug onto the final review.

The Ampligen Series on Phoenix Rising

  • Ampligen - What it is, how it works, what doctors say, etc.
  • Twisted History - Ampligen’s long and tangled road with ME/CFS
  • Dr. Lapp Interview - Kelvin Lord interviews long-time Ampligen provider, Dr. Charles Lapp, on Ampligen and other treatment options
  • The Ampligen Blogs - Follow Kelvin Lord as he documented his year-long experience with Ampligen

A Big Blow – In  what journalist (and Hemispherx critic) Adam Feuerstein called a ‘staggering blow’, in Dec. 2009, the FDA told Hemipherx that it could not approve  Ampligen’s use  in ME/CFS until the following issues have been settled.  Hemispherx needed to

  • Show credible evidence of Ampligen’s efficacy using expanded studies that are at least six months long
  • Show that Ampligen is safe; ie that it does not cause autoimmune disorders or heart problems (prolonged qt intervals)
  • Produce studies in which patients are on  more than one dose regimen
  • Produce studies in which at least 300 patients are on doses intended for the market
  • Follow the FDA’s  ‘recommendation’ that rodent studies be done to examine carcinogenicity
  • Provide additional data on quality control  issues
  • Fix Inspection issues at one of Ampligen’s facilities

The FDA asked a lot for a small company when it asked for an expensive  300 person study and Hemipherx  stock prices plunged 43% on the news.  A strong skeptic, journalist Adam Feuerstein noted that  Hemispherx has unsuccessfully attempted to prove the drug works in a ‘dizzying’ array of diseases (hepatitis B and C, smallpox, HIV, ebola, avian flu , swine flu- HINI) and predicted the drug would never  be approved. (Shortly after  the XMRV Science paper, in an ill-fated move, Hemipherx embarked on studies attempting to prove Ampligen efficacy in treating XMRV infected patients.) Feuerstein suggested the company might not be able to financially meet the FDA’s demands.

2012 Study – Feuerstein may have been right.  While a 2012 study did provide more evidence of efficacy and more safety data, it was based on an analysis of data from a 1998-2004 study.    The FDA, however, rejected Hemispherx’s claims of Ampligens efficacy in earlier studies. This study may help but while it was larger study (@ 200 people) it wasn’t able to met the FDA’s  requests for a 300 person study or to examine the effects of multiple dose ranges or do rodent studies.


derek enlander December 21, 2012 at 8:50 am

Cort, you were coherent in your FDA statement yesterday, unfortunately the panel were not moved by the patients’ or supporters remarks . The company unfortunately did not put their best foot forward allowing questions about the accuracy of the Ampligen results. Other drugs have been placed on trial with government support, it is peculiar that the panel who asked for more research and greater numbers of patients did not vote to support a research effort.

J Chavez October 31, 2013 at 3:32 pm

I was one of the few (less than a few hundred, nationwide) in the FDA Phase II drug trial of Ampligen. In San Diego CA there were about 25 who underwent that trial. Of the total about 5-8 of us became notably and dramatically more afflicted by severe CFIDS symptoms and could not complete the drug trial as a result. (I ended being bed-ridden for a year, after many previous years of relative OK health). SInce the drug trial involved a control group who were adminsitered a placebo, the 5-8 afflicted represent well over half the of those receiving Ampligen.

We who were serverely afflicted from Ampligen were simply shown as “dropouts” not having completed the drug trial and our negative symptoms were not recorded or forwarded by the presiding physician (he refused to enter that data), Hemispherex, and the FDA. The very few who had moderately positive outcomes were generally healthier and less afflicted by CFIDS to begin with.

The methodology during our Ph II drug trial was lax, poor and had little relevant data regarding our CFIDS symptoms and health.

I find it interesting that many in the CFIDS community, refuse to take note of the known but somewhat hidden data that Ampligen has statistically relevant pronounced negative side effects. I still read reviews and petitions by many in the CFIDS community who are ignorant of these relevant facts. I also find it interesting that the FDA who we contacted and notified, took some of our statements and data, but precious little of that ever appeared in the public record. We gave up (too afflicted, too tired, too fatigued and too disgusted).

We who were recipients of Ampligen (it is doubtfu, almost impossible, that the placebo could have induced such immediate and pronounced negative side effects) KNOW that Ampligen may benefit some few, but WILL afflict many. All others who have not taken Ampligen are simply parroting the huge Hemispherx media campaign – whether they know it or not.

John Chavez, San Diego CA

Laura Gosselin March 9, 2014 at 7:10 am

Your thoughts that I have just read about in regards to your Ampligen experiences were not wasted, when I read them. I want to tell you thank you very much for not giving up to speak about your concerns. I understand how difficult it is to get through a day never mind without any support in either category, to continue trying to go above and beyond to care about other people. You have been heard! Thank YOU! I hope you are feeling better now too!!!

Mike F June 17, 2015 at 7:06 pm

Thank you John!!! I was considering trying Ampligen as I am desperate for a cure like most people with CFS/ME. After reading what you wrote I definitely will not try it as what you went through is scary. And the fact that you were recorded by the doctor/drug company as a “dropout” instead of having severe negative effects is disgusting. Who knows how else Hemispherx has lied and misrepresented Ampligen in the attempts to get it approved.

The fact that they have been trying to get Ampligen approved for 30 years shows there is something seriously wrong with either the company or the drug itself. If it actually worked a money hungry corporation like DuPont would not have backed out of it’s investment because there are millions of people in this world with CFS/ME so they would have profited extensively with its success.

Thanks John! You saved me a lot of money and possibly a great deal of misery.

Raphaela Deming May 21, 2014 at 4:03 pm

Is this drug available in Canada? If so, how costly is it? I am desperate for relief from CFS. I’m bed-ridden and getting worse as time goes by.

jay July 23, 2014 at 2:19 pm

Have you tried Provigil? It now has a generic version and is affordable. Please post back once you have tried it. :-)

Cate July 28, 2014 at 1:54 am

Jay I tried it-provigil (modafinil) it made me feel like i was hit in the head with a 2by 4 and completely out of it and so messed up I never took another dose. I prayed for the experience to end. I’m amazed some seem to rave about it.

CHERYL September 1, 2014 at 10:45 pm

I was a participant in the 200 patient study,double blinded placebo controlled. The patients that were on the ampligen were helped substantially by ampligen. It was amazing to see someone in a wheelchair unable to speak, walk and talk and smile. It was miraculous. I unfortunately was on the saline solution. I have been advocating for this drug. It works, I witnessed it. I want that opportunity to be well.

CHERYL September 1, 2014 at 10:50 pm

We must put pressure on the F.D.A. to approve this drug. It is our right.

Kathy January 2, 2015 at 11:51 am

Cheryl…what state was the trial that you participated in? The double blind study I was in would not accept wheelchair bound patients. I wondered why, since most of us with this illness become so ill that wheelchairs may be eventually needed. I wondered why the medical community would not want to include the most impaired among us. I participated in 1998-99. Maybe they decided to include patients who could not stand up after that trial? I felt the written sections, that we had to fill out from time to time were extremely ineffective…don’t understand how they would ever be able to make sense toward proving anything with those questions. The medical community should ask some CFS patients to list the questions that SHOULD be asked. I also think that more focus should be addressed to the early life and medications of CFS patients. I know at one time there were some discussions about the possibility of linking certain early vaccines to CFS, but some cross referencing needs to be done concerning OTHER early medications ( that since have been discontinued) and the connection those meds may have been in creating the perfect climate for CFS to manifest. I am so disgusted with the medical community’s lack of efficiency in curtailing this illness…the best years of my life have passed while I waited for a cure. If this illness actually killed us, there would have been a worldwide call for a cure, since it doesn’t , it is put on a back burner.

Mary Jo Drager February 10, 2015 at 3:23 am

Dr. William A. Carter not only founded the company to manufacture Ampligen, it is he who developed the drug while on a post-doctoral research post at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD. Dr. Carter modified a previous synthesis too toxic for use by modifying the RNA chain. He named it Ampligen for AMPLIfied GENetic activity. Source: Rintatolimod (

Mark April 7, 2015 at 5:33 pm

I am looking to speak with someone with experience with CFS/ME. I was recently diagnosed with this after 4 plus years of hell and being tested for everything known to mankind. I went from being perfectly healthy to this life changing illness. Believe me I’m not being Dramatic when I say it has most recently leveled me for the past 6 months and unable to work with unspeakable weakness and Neuro issues. I just want my life back and it’s hard to find a doctor who really knows how to treat it. Any help or support would be much appreciated.

Alex April 17, 2015 at 7:29 pm

You can see whether you agree with the diagnosis by reading the diagnostic criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome on or the new, more concise criteria on You could look online for holistic MDs within a distance you are willing to travel. This is one source to try: Then look up prospective doctors on the “Rate My Doctor” websites. Or you could take your problems to a certified naturopathic doctor or even a homeopath, and see how much they can help you. (You can read up about them on their websites.) Yellow pages are a good source for practitioners or try online, such as:
This would be a good start.

Mike F June 17, 2015 at 6:45 pm

Hello Mark. I’ve been going through the same thing and yes it’s extremely frustrating. Unfortunately there is no cure yet for CFS/ME but there has recently been a major breakthrough at Columbia University in the U.S. which is the first step to a cure. They have found what causes it and it can be seen on a blood test.

Don’t waste your money on a Homeopathic Doctor. Homeopathic “medicine” has been proven time and time again to not cure any disease or illness at all. Most of their “medicines” are sugar pills.

If you decide to see a Naturopathic Doctor be very careful, there are some good ones but most are scam artists who will sell you hundreds of dollars worth of vitamins and supplements that do nothing because there is no cure for CFS/ME. One might help if your medical doctors overlooked something or on the slight chance that something they don’t test for could be causing your problems. For example, supposedly high amounts of yeast in your body or food intolerances could cause autoimmune disorders which could cause fatigue – supposedly!

Anyways, good luck and hang in there! There are many doctors, universities, etc working on a cure so hopefully one will be found soon.

j.A. July 4, 2015 at 4:36 pm

You may want to consider joining a facebook group for chronic fatigue syndrome to talk to others with experience. There are many. There, without the effort of leaving your house, you can ask questions, hear others’ stories — successes & lack of — also some people post links to the newest information out there on ME/CFS. Some suggest top doctors fo ME/CFS. It has helped me to see I am not the only one struggling. Also, sites like this, Cort Johnon’s, and advocacy groups or websites might help. ProHealth has a lot of articles too. Just some suggestions. Good luck!

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